eBook: Download Intelligence Understanding Creation Intelligent Machines ePub (KINDLE, PDF, MOBI) + Audio Version


  • File Size: 1076 KB
  • Print Length: 284 pages
  • Publisher: Times Books; Reprint edition (April 1, 2007)
  • Publication Date: April 1, 2007
  • Language: English

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This book was a great study, very accessible and may prove to be an essential book one day. Is actually concise and to the point and if you have any interest whatsoever inside AI you simply may not miss this that. It's a quick study that will without a doubt have a very significant effect on how you view the future of artificial brains.

Like a testament to is actually relevancy today (I'm creating this Sept 2012, more effective years after the book had been published) he predicts 3 technological applications that might become available in the short term (5-10 years) due to breakthroughs within the kind of trainable AI this book discusses:

Computer vision and teaching a computer to tell the in between a cat and a dog (this was successfully demonstrated in a examine published in June 2012 - the paper will be called "Building High-level Functions Using Large Scale Unsupervised Learning" and is obtainable online, or just seek out "computer learns to identify cats" for articles)

PDAs (as they were referred to as back then) will understand naturally spoken instructions such as "Move my daughter's hockey game on Sunday in order to 10 within the morning" (this kind of sentence, replicated from the book verbatim, is exactly where Apple's AI application SIRI shines)

Smart/autonomous cars - inside Aug 2012, Google announced that their self traveling cars have logged three hundred K accident free miles in live traffic about public roads, exceeding the average distance a runner hard disks without accident.

The thing in order to note here is that when he wrote the book these three items had hurdles that we all did not know just how to solve, and at the time there had been no clear linear progression of existing solutions that would guarantee they might be solved. His conjecture is that we'll manage to train computers to identify patterns by themselves which usually will allow us in order to eventually solve the problems (and this is precisely how the computer figured out to recognize cat encounters from youtube videos)

Furthermore, he predicts that AI will end up one of the hottest fields within the next 10 years - and together with the current explosion of interest in Big Information, Machine Learning, and apps like SIRI it is hard in order to deny that it lookslike we're right in the midst of seeing merely this happen.

The grander implications of the model of this book won't end up being known for another 10-20 years or more, but 7 years in his / her general predictions about the field of AI have been very accurate., The particular book is about Hawkins' theory of how the mammalian cortex, especially the human cortex, works. Hawkins thinks it is just by understanding the emballage that we will be able to develop truly intelligent machines. Blakeslee has aided him inside presenting this theory thus that it is obtainable by the public. I am very impressed by simply the theory of the emballage, but I do not agree that the cortex will be the only way in order to achieve intelligence.

Hawkins describes intelligence as the ability to make predictions. I think this is an excellent associated with intelligence.

He says the cortex makes predictions via memory. The particular rat in the web has a memory which usually includes the motor action of turning right and the experience of meals. This activates turning proper again, which is comparative to the prediction that if he turns proper, food will occur.

The particular primate visual system, which usually is the sense finest understood, has four cortical areas which are in a hierarchy. In the least expensive area, at the back of the head, tissues respond to edges inside particular locations, sometimes in order to edges moving in specific guidelines. In the highest area you can find tissues that respond to encounters, sometimes particular faces, this kind of as the face of Bill Clinton.

But the microscopic appearance of the cortex is simply the exact same everywhere. There is not necessarily even much difference in between motor cortex and physical cortex. The book makes sense from the connections discovered in all areas from the cortex.

The cortex is really a sheet covering the mind made up of small adjacent content of cells, each together with six layers. Information coming from a lower cortical area excites the layer some of a column. Coating 4 cells excite tissues in layers 2 and 3 of the exact same column, which in turn excite cells in layers 5 and 6. Layers 2 and 3 have connections to the higher cortical area. Layer 5 has motor connections (the visual area affects eye movements) and layer six connects to the lower cortical area. Layer six goes to the long fibers in layer 1 of the area below, which usually can excite layers a couple of and or 3 inside many columns.

So there are two ways of exciting a column. Both by the area under stimulating layer 4, or perhaps with the area above revitalizing layers 2 and three or more. The synapses from the area above are significantly from the cell physiques of the neurons, but Hawkins suggests that synapses far from the mobile body may fire a cell if several synapses are activated simultaneously.

The particular lowest area, at the back of your head, will be not actually the starting of processing. It gets input from your thalamus, inside the middle of the brain (which receives suggestions from the eyes). Cells in the thalamus respond to small circle of light, and the first stage of processing is to convert this respond to spots in order to response to moving ends.

And the highest visual area is not the end from the story. That connects to multisensory locations of the cortex, where vision is coupled with listening to and touch, and so forth

The particular very highest area is not really cortex at all, but the hippocampus.

Perception constantly involves prediction. When we all look at a encounter, our fixation point is constantly shifting, and we predict the actual result of the next fixation is going to be.

In accordance to Hawkins, when an part of the cortex knows just what it is perceiving, that sends to the area below information on the name of the sequence, and where we are within the sequence. If the next item in the sequence agrees with the actual higher area thought it should be, the lower area transmits no information back upwards. But if something unexpected occurs, it transmits information up. If the higher area can interpret the wedding, it revises its result to the lower area, and sends nothing in order to the area above that.

But truly unexpected activities will percolate all the way upwards to the hippocampus. That is the hippocampus that processes the truly novel, eventually storing the once novel sequence within the emballage. If the hippocampus to both sides is destroyed, anyone may still be smart, but can learn nothing new (at least, simply no new declarative memory).

Whenever building an artificial auto-associative memory, which can find out sequences, you need to build inside a delay in order that the next item will be predicted when it will take place. Hawkins suggests that the necessary delay is put in the feedback loop between layer 5 and the nonspecific areas of the thalamus. A cell inside a nonspecific thalamic area may stimulate many cortical cells.

I believe this concept of how the emballage works makes a lots of sense, and I was grateful to Hawkins and Blakeslee for writing that inside a book that will be accessible in people with restricted AI and neuroscience.

Nevertheless I am not persuaded that the mammalian emballage is the only method to achieve intelligence. Hawkins suggests that the tipp walks and sniffs together with its "reptilian brain", but needs the cortex to understand the correct turn inside the maze. But alligators can learn mazes making use of only their reptilian minds. I would have recently been quite surprised if they will could not.

Even bees can predict, utilizing a mind of one cubic millimeter. Not only can they will learn to locate a plate of sugar water, if you move the bowl a little out-of-the-way each and every day, the bee should go to the correct predicted location rather than in order to the last experienced location.

And large-brained birds accomplish primate levels of brains without a cortex. The particular part of the forebrain that is enlarged inside highly intelligent birds contains a nuclear rather than a laminar (layered) structure. The particular parrot Alex had terminology and intelligence equivalent in order to a two year aged human, and Aesop's myth from the crow that discovered out to have what he wanted from your surface of the water by shedding stones in the normal water and raising the normal water level, has been replicated in crows presented together with the problem.

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